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Internet

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP, although not all applications use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies.

Internet Digital technology New media Sociocultural globalization Virtual reality Media technology American inventions Scientific revolution 1969 introductions
Website

A website, also written as Web site, web site, or simply site, is a set of related web pages containing content such as text, images, video, audio, etc. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network through an Internet address known as a Uniform Resource Locator. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web.

Websites
Mass media

Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication. Broadcast media (also known as electronic media) transmit their information electronically and comprise television, film and radio, movies, CDs, DVDs and some other devices like cameras and video consoles.

Mass media
Billboard charts

The Billboard charts tabulate the relative weekly popularity of songs or albums in the United States. The results are published in Billboard magazine. The two primary charts – the Hot 100 (top 100 singles) and the Billboard 200 (top 200 albums) – factor in airplay, as well as music sales in all relevant formats. On January 4, 1936, Billboard magazine published its first music hit parade. The first Music Popularity Chart was calculated in July 1940.

Billboard charts
Email

Electronic mail, commonly known as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages.

History of the Internet Internet terminology Email Electronic documents American inventions
World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3, commonly known as the Web, or the "Information Superhighway"), is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia, and navigate between them via hyperlinks.

World Wide Web 1989 introductions English inventions Human–computer interaction Information Age
Web browser

A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video, or other piece of content. Hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources.

Web browsers
Internet service provider

An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides access to the Internet. Internet service providers can be either community-owned and non-profit, or privately owned and for-profit. Access ISPs directly connect clients to the Internet using copper wires, wireless or fiber-optic connections. Hosting ISPs lease server space for smaller businesses and other people. Transit ISPs provide large amounts of bandwidth for connecting hosting ISPs to access ISPs.

Internet service providers
Social networking service

A social networking service is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on facilitating the building of social networks or social relations among people who, for example, share interests, activities, backgrounds, or real-life connections. A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services.

Youth rights Adolescence Social networking services Technology in society Youth
Voice over IP

Voice over IP (VoIP, or voice over Internet Protocol) commonly refers to the communication protocols, technologies, methodologies, and transmission techniques involved in the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. Other terms commonly associated with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, and broadband phone.

Voice over IP Telecommunications terms Broadband Videotelephony Audio network protocols
Comcast

Comcast Corporation is the largest cable operator, home Internet service provider, and third largest home telephone service provider in the United States, providing cable television, broadband Internet, telephone service and home security [in some areas] to both residential and commercial customers in 40 states and the District of Columbia. The company is headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Companies listed on NASDAQ Internet service providers of the United States Cable television companies of the United States Video on demand Broadband VoIP companies Publicly traded companies of the United States Entertainment companies of the United States NBCUniversal Comcast Corporation Companies established in 1963 Multinational companies headquartered in the United States Companies based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is a popular technology that allows an electronic device to exchange data wirelessly over a computer network, including high-speed Internet connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards". However, since most modern WLANs are based on these standards, the term "Wi-Fi" is used in general English as a synonym for "WLAN".

Wi-Fi
Internet Movie Database

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information related to films, television programs, actors, production crew personnel, video games and fictional characters featured in visual entertainment media. It is one of the most popular online entertainment destinations, with over 100 million unique users each month and a solid and rapidly growing mobile presence. IMDb was launched on October 17, 1990, and in 1998 was acquired by Amazon. com.

Film websites Amazon.com Article Feedback 5 Additional Articles Web 2.0 Internet forums Online film databases Internet properties established in 1990 Recommender systems
Internet forum

An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages. They differ from chat rooms in that messages are at least temporarily archived. Also, depending on the access level of a user or the forum set-up, a posted message might need to be approved by a moderator before it becomes visible. Forums have a specific set of jargon associated with them; e.g. a single conversation is called a "thread".

Online chat Social information processing Internet forums Groupware
Copyright infringement

Copyright infringement is the unauthorized use of works under copyright, infringing the copyright holder's "exclusive rights", such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, spread the information contained within copyrighted works, or to make derivative works. It often refers to copying "intellectual property" without written permission from the copyright holder, which is typically a publisher or other business representing or assigned by the work's creator.

Crimes Copyright law Organized crime Copyright infringement Tort law Property crimes
Web search engine

A web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are generally presented in a list of results often referred to as search engine results pages (SERPs). The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories.

Information retrieval Internet search engines Internet terminology History of the Internet
IP address

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g. , computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. Its role has been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there.

Network addressing Internet Protocol
Communications protocol

A communications protocol is a system of digital message formats and rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems and in telecommunications. A protocol may have a formal description. Protocols may include signaling, authentication and error detection and correction capabilities. A protocol definition defines the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication; the specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented.

Data transmission Network protocols Protocols
Internet Explorer

Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 that year. Later versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs, and included in the OEM service releases of Windows 95 and later versions of Windows.

News aggregators History of the Internet Windows web browsers Hypertext FTP clients Proprietary software Internet Explorer Human–computer interaction Windows components
Distance education

Distance education or distance learning is a field of education that focuses on teaching methods and technology with the aim of delivering teaching, often on an individual basis, to students who are not physically present in a traditional educational setting such as a classroom. It has been described as "a process to create and provide access to learning when the source of information and the learners are separated by time and distance, or both.

Types of university or college Learning methods Distance education Television terminology Educational technology Educational television
Dot-com bubble

The dot-com bubble (also referred to as the Internet bubble and the Information Technology Bubble) was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2000 (with a climax on March 10, 2000, with the NASDAQ peaking at 5132.52 in intraday trading before closing at 5048.62) during which stock markets in industrialized nations saw their equity value rise rapidly from growth in the Internet sector and related fields.

Information technology management History of the Internet Economic disasters in the United States 2000s economic history Online companies 1990s fads and trends Internet terminology Electronic commerce 1990s economic history Economic bubbles History of the United States (1991–present)
Auction

An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, and then selling the item to the highest bidder. In economic theory, an auction may refer to any mechanism or set of trading rules for exchange.

Auction theory Auctioneering Business models
Electronic commerce

Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce or e-comm, refers to the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce draws on such technologies as electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems.

Information technology management Web applications Web development Electronic commerce Marketing
Streaming media

Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a streaming provider. With streaming, the client browser or plug-in can start displaying the data before the entire file has been transmitted. The name refers to the delivery method of the medium rather than to the medium itself.

Internet broadcasting Digital television Internet radio Video on demand services File sharing networks Peer-to-peer computing Multimedia Streaming media systems Television terminology Networks Internet television Cloud storage Film and video technology Peercasting Applications of distributed computing
Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol used for relaying datagrams (also known as network packets) across an internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite. Responsible for routing packets across network boundaries, it is the primary protocol that establishes the Internet. IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering datagrams from the source host to the destination host solely based on the addresses.

Internet layer protocols Internet Protocol
Usenet

Usenet is a worldwide distributed Internet discussion system. It was developed from the general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. Duke University graduate students Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979 and it was established in 1980. Users read and post messages (called articles or posts, and collectively termed news) to one or more categories, known as newsgroups.

Internet protocols History of the Internet Wikipedia articles with ASCII art Usenet Internet standards Virtual communities Pre–World Wide Web online services Internet Protocol based network software Online chat Computer-mediated communication
Wireless

Wireless telecommunications is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not physically connected. Distances can be short, such as a few metres for television remote control, or as far as thousands or even millions of kilometres for deep-space radio communications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking.

Wireless History of radio Television terminology Wireless networking
Confidence trick

A confidence trick is an attempt to defraud a person or group by gaining their confidence. A confidence artist is an individual operating alone or in concert with others who exploits characteristics of the human psyche such as dishonesty and honesty, vanity, compassion, credulity, irresponsibility, naivety and greed.

Deception Fraud Confidence tricks
Uniform resource locator

In computing, a uniform resource locator (URL) is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to an Internet resource. A URL is technically a type of uniform resource identifier (URI) but in many technical documents and verbal discussions URL is often used as a synonym for URI.

Identifiers Uniform resource locator
Verizon Communications

Verizon Communications Inc. is a global broadband and telecommunications company and a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. It started in 1983 as Bell Atlantic with a footprint covering New Jersey to Virginia and emerged as part of the 1984 AT&T breakup into seven "Baby Bells. " In 1997, Bell Atlantic merged with another Regional Bell Operating Company, NYNEX, based in New York City with a footprint spanning from New York to Maine. The combined company kept the Bell Atlantic name.

Pay telephone operators of the United States Dow Jones Industrial Average Companies listed on NASDAQ Internet service providers of the United States Cable television companies of the United States Video on demand Broadband Bell System Verizon Communications Telecommunications companies of the United States Companies based in New York City Companies established in 1983
Cloud computing

Cloud computing refers to the delivery of computing and storage capacity as a service to a heterogeneous community of end-recipients. The name comes from the use of clouds as an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it contains in system diagrams. Cloud computing entrusts services with a user's data, software and computation over a network. It has considerable overlap with software as a service (SaaS).

Cloud platforms Free software for cloud computing Cloud computing
Information and communications technology

Information and communications technology or information and communication technology, usually abbreviated as ICT, is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is usually a more general term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers, middleware as well as necessary software, storage- and audio-visual systems, which enable users to create, access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

Information technology Communication
Online and offline

The terms "online" and "offline" (also stylized as "on-line" and "off-line") have specific meanings in regard to computer technology and telecommunications. In general, "online" indicates a state of connectivity, while "offline" indicates a disconnected state. In common usage, "online" often refers to the Internet or the World-Wide Web.

Internet slang
Xbox Live

Xbox Live (trademarked as Xbox LIVE) is an online multiplayer gaming and digital media delivery service created and operated by Microsoft Corporation. It is currently the only online gaming service on consoles that charges users a fee to play multiplayer gaming. It was first made available to the Xbox system in November 2002. An updated version of the service became available for the Xbox 360 console at that system's launch in September 2005, and is a competitor of Sony's PlayStation Network.

Multiplayer gaming service Xbox 360 Windows Phone games Xbox Live
Computer keyboard

In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter-style keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input device for computers.

Video game control methods Computer keyboards Computing input devices Flexible electronics
Webcomic

Webcomics (also known as online comics or Internet comics) are comics published on a website. While many are published exclusively on the web, others are also published in magazines, newspapers or in books. Webcomics can be compared to self-published print comics in that almost anyone can create their own webcomic and publish it. In January 2007, there were an estimated 38,000 webcomics being published.

Webcomics World Wide Web
Virgin Media

Virgin Media Inc. is a company which provides fixed and mobile telephone, television and broadband internet services to businesses and consumers in the United Kingdom. Its executive office is in New York City, United States and its operational headquarters are in Hook, United Kingdom. The company was formed in March 2006 by the merger of NTL and Telewest, which created NTL:Telewest.

Cable television companies Companies established in 1984 Television in the United Kingdom British brands Companies listed on NASDAQ Companies based in Hampshire Telecommunications companies of the United Kingdom British television networks Media companies of the United Kingdom Internet service providers of the United Kingdom Virgin Media
Broadband

The term broadband refers to a telecommunications signal or device of greater bandwidth, in some sense, than another standard or usual signal or device (and the broader the band, the greater the capacity for traffic). Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times. Its origin is in physics, acoustics and radio systems engineering, where it had been used with a meaning similar to wideband.

Digital technology Broadband
Internet radio

Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio webcasting) is an audio service transmitted via the Internet. Music streaming on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means. Internet radio involves streaming media, presenting listeners with a continuous stream of audio that cannot be paused or replayed, much like traditional broadcast media; in this respect, it is distinct from on-demand file serving.

Streaming Media formats Internet radio
Internship

Internship is a system of on-the-job training for white-collar and professional careers. Internships for professional careers are similar to apprenticeships for trade and vocational jobs. Although interns are typically college or university students, they can also be high school students or post-graduate adults. Rarely, they can even be middle school or in some cases elementary students.

Educational stages Learning methods Employment Internships Beginners and newcomers
Web application

A web application is an application that is accessed over a network such as the Internet or an intranet . The term may also mean a computer software application that is coded in a browser-supported language and reliant on a common web browser to render the application executable. Web applications are popular due to the ubiquity of web browsers, and the convenience of using a web browser as a client, sometimes called a thin client.

Web development Software architecture Web applications
Internet access

Internet access is the means by which individual terminals, computers, mobile devices, and local area networks are connected to the global Internet. Internet access is usually sold by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) that use many different technologies offering a wide range of data rates to the end user. Consumer use first became popular through dial-up connections in the 1980s and 1990s.

Human rights by issue Rights Broadband Internet access
Internet Relay Chat

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a protocol for real-time Internet text messaging or synchronous conferencing. It is mainly designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels, but also allows one-to-one communication via private message as well as chat and data transfer, including file sharing. IRC was created in 1988. Client software is available for every major operating system that supports Internet access.

Application layer protocols Virtual communities Internet terminology Finnish inventions Online chat Internet Relay Chat
Hoax

A hoax is a deliberately fabricated falsehood made to masquerade as truth. It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, or rumors, urban legends, pseudosciences or April Fools' Day events that are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes.

Literary hoaxes Deception Hoaxes
Router (computing)

A router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks, creating an overlay internetwork. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey.

Internet architecture Routers (computing) Hardware routers Networking hardware Server appliance
Northern Mariana Islands

The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), is one of the two insular area Commonwealths of the United States of America, the other being Puerto Rico. Both can also be classified as unincorporated, organized territories of the United States. Occupying a strategic region of the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of 15 islands about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines.

Northern Mariana Islands States and territories established in 1898 Insular areas of the United States Micronesia Former Japanese colonies Former German colonies English-speaking countries and territories Lists of coordinates World War II sites Island countries Former Spanish colonies Archipelagoes of the Pacific Ocean
Internet Engineering Task Force

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards, cooperating closely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standards bodies and dealing in particular with standards of the TCP/IP and Internet protocol suite. It is an open standards organization, with no formal membership or membership requirements.

Task forces History of the Internet Internet governance Standards organizations Computer network organizations 1986 establishments
Åland Islands

Domain name

A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority, or control on the Internet. Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS). Domain names are used in various networking contexts and application-specific naming and addressing purposes.

Identifiers Domain name system
Domain Name System

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. A Domain Name Service resolves queries for these names into IP addresses for the purpose of locating computer services and devices worldwide.

Internet protocols Domain name system Application layer protocols
Child pornography

Child pornography refers to images or films (also known as child abuse images) and, in some cases, writings depicting sexually explicit activities involving a child. Abuse of the child occurs during the sexual acts which are recorded in the production of child pornography, and several professors of psychology state that memories of the abuse are maintained as long as visual records exist, are accessed, and are "exploited perversely.

Crimes Abuse Child pornography Sex crimes
Online magazine

This article refers to online equivalents of magazines. For online diaries, see Online diary and Blog. For online academic journals, see electronic journal For the magazine of this name, see ONLINE. 50x40px This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. An online magazine is published on the World Wide Web and is called a webzine.

Electronic publishing Online magazines Zines Magazines by medium
IPTV

Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is a system through which television services are delivered using the Internet protocol suite over a packet-switched network such as the Internet, instead of being delivered through traditional terrestrial, satellite signal, and cable television formats.

Internet broadcasting Digital television Internet radio Video on demand services Television technology Television terminology Internet television Film and video technology
Transport Layer Security

Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols that provide communication security over the Internet. TLS and SSL encrypt the segments of network connections at the Application Layer for the Transport Layer, using asymmetric cryptography for key exchange, symmetric encryption for privacy, and message authentication codes for message integrity.

Application layer protocols Internet protocols Internet standards Secure communication Electronic commerce Cryptographic protocols
E-learning

E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. The information and communication systems, whether networked learning or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process. The term will still most likely be utilized to reference out-of-classroom and in-classroom educational experiences via technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum.

Education-related terms History of education Distance education Virtual learning environments
Training

The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics).

Training
Computer virus

A computer virus is a computer program that can replicate itself and spread from one computer to another. The term "virus" is also commonly, but erroneously, used to refer to other types of malware, including but not limited to adware and spyware programs that do not have a reproductive ability. Malware includes computer viruses, computer worms, Trojan horses, most rootkits, spyware, dishonest adware and other malicious or unwanted software, including true viruses.

Computer security exploits Computer viruses
Top-level domain

A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet. The top-level domain names are installed in the root zone of the name space. For all domains in lower levels, it is the last part of the domain name, that is, the last label of a fully qualified domain name. For example, in the domain name www. example. com, the top-level domain is . com (or . COM, as domain names are not case-sensitive).

Internet governance Identifiers Top-level domains Domain name system
Tablet computer

A tablet computer, or a tablet, is a mobile computer, larger than a mobile phone or personal digital assistant, integrated into a flat touch screen and primarily operated by touching the screen rather than using a physical keyboard. It often uses an onscreen virtual keyboard, a passive stylus pen, or a digital pen. The term may also apply to a variety of form factors that differ in position of the screen with respect to a keyboard.

Tablet computers Classes of computers Personal computing
Viral video

A viral video is one that becomes popular through the process of Internet sharing, typically through video sharing websites, social media and email. Viral videos often contain humorous content and include televised comedy sketches, such as The Lonely Island's "Lazy Sunday" and "Dick in a Box", amateur video clips like Star Wars Kid the Numa Numa videos, The Evolution of Dance, Chocolate Rain on YouTube; and web-only productions such as I Got a Crush... on Obama.

Buzzwords Viral marketing Viral videos
Startup company

A startup company or startup is a company or temporary organization designed to search for a repeatable and scalable business model . These companies, generally newly created, are in a phase of development and research for markets. The term became popular internationally during the dot-com bubble when a great number of dot-com companies were founded.

Entrepreneurship Private equity Online companies Types of business entity
Bandwidth (computing)

In computer networking and computer science, the words bandwidth, network bandwidth, data bandwidth, or digital bandwidth are colloquial and metaphoric terms widely used in textbooks as well as scientific papers, patents and standards to refer to various bit-rate measures, representing the available or consumed data communication resources expressed in bits/second or multiples of it (kilobits/s, megabits/s etc.).

Electronics terms
Netscape

Netscape Communications (formerly known as Netscape Communications Corporation and commonly known as Netscape) is a US computer services company, best known for Netscape Navigator, its web browser. When it was an independent company, its headquarters were in Mountain View, California. The name Netscape was a trademark of Cisco Systems. Netscape's web browser was once dominant in terms of usage share, but lost most of that share to Internet Explorer during the first browser war.

Companies formerly listed on NASDAQ Defunct computer companies of the United States Companies established in 1994 Netscape Companies based in Mountain View, California AOL
Swatch Internet Time

Swatch Internet Time (or beat time) is a decimal time concept introduced in 1998 and marketed by the Swatch corporation as an alternative, decimal measure of time. One of the goals was to simplify the way people in different time zones communicate about time, mostly by eliminating time zones altogether. Instead of hours and minutes, the mean solar day is divided up into 1000 parts called ". beats". Each . beat lasts 1 minute and 26.4 seconds.

Swiss inventions 1998 introductions Time measurement systems Units of time
Internet meme

The term Internet meme is used to describe a concept that spreads via the Internet. The term is a reference to the concept of memes, although the latter concept refers to a much broader category of cultural information. The earliest known usage of the word meme is in the book The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins published in 1976.

Internet memes Words coined in the 1990s
Client (computing)

A client is an application or system that accesses a service made available by a server. The server is often (but not always) on another computer system, in which case the client accesses the service by way of a network. The term was first applied to devices that were not capable of running their own stand-alone programs, but could interact with remote computers via a network. These dumb terminals were clients of the time-sharing mainframe computer. The client–server model is still used today.

Clients (computing)
Internet Archive

Not to be confused with the arXiv. For help citing the Internet Archive in English Wikipedia, see . Coordinates: 37°46′56.3″N 122°28′17.65″W / 37.782306°N 122.4715694°W / 37.782306; -122.4715694 Title=Internet Archive;ns=0/Main/;language:wiki=en,locale=en Internet Archive logo. Type Digital libraryFounded 1996 (1996)Key people Brewster KahleWebsite www. archive.

Public libraries in California History of the Internet Organizations established in 1996 Foundations based in the United States 1996 establishments in the United States Sound archives Ebook suppliers Non-profit organizations based in San Francisco, California Internet properties established in 2001 Online archives Film archives Web archiving initiatives Digital libraries
File sharing

File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digitally stored information, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents, or electronic books. It may be implemented through a variety of ways. Common methods of storage, transmission and dispersion include manual sharing utilizing removable media, centralized servers on computer networks, World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents, and the use of distributed peer-to-peer networking.

Peer-to-peer file sharing File sharing Social networks Instant messaging Internet terminology Intellectual property law Internet Relay Chat
Email spam

Email spam, also known as junk email or unsolicited bulk email (UBE), is a subset of electronic spam involving nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by email. Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that email is unsolicited and sent in bulk. One subset of UBE is UCE (unsolicited commercial email). The opposite of "spam", email which one wants, is called "ham", usually when referring to a message's automated analysis (such as Bayesian filtering).

Spamming Email
Asymmetric digital subscriber line

Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of digital subscriber line technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide. It does this by utilizing frequencies that are not used by a voice telephone call. A splitter, or DSL filter, allows a single telephone connection to be used for both ADSL service and voice calls at the same time.

ITU-T recommendations Digital subscriber line Internet terminology
Opera (web browser)

Opera is a web browser and Internet suite developed by Opera Software with over 200 million users worldwide. The browser handles common Internet-related tasks such as displaying web sites, sending and receiving e-mail messages, managing contacts, chatting on IRC, downloading files via BitTorrent, and reading web feeds. Opera is offered free of charge for personal computers and mobile phones. Opera is the most popular desktop browser in some countries, such as Ukraine.

POSIX web browsers News aggregators Pocket PC software Proprietary cross-platform software Opera Software Mac OS X web browsers Windows web browsers Embedded Linux Unix Internet Relay Chat clients OS/2 web browsers Java device platform Internet suites Widget engines Freeware Web browsers Linux BitTorrent clients Windows Internet Relay Chat clients 1996 software BitTorrent clients Linux internet software Internet Relay Chat clients Unix internet software Portable software Windows software C++ software Mac OS X Internet Relay Chat clients
Digital distribution

Digital distribution (also called content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution, among others) describes the delivery of media content such as audio, video, software and video games, without the use of physical media usually over online delivery mediums, such as the Internet. Digital distribution bypasses conventional physical distribution methods, such as paper or DVDs.

Online content distribution Electronic commerce Digital rights management Video game development
Digital subscriber line

Digital subscriber line (DSL, originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that provide internet access by transmitting digital data over the wires of a local telephone network. In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is widely understood to mean Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), the most commonly installed DSL technology. DSL service is delivered simultaneously with wired telephone service on the same telephone line.

Internet Digital subscriber line Modems Telecommunications American inventions
User (computing)

A user is an agent, either a human agent (end-user) or software agent, who uses a computer or network service. A user often has a user account and is identified by a username (also user name). Other terms for username include login name, screen name (also screenname), nickname (also nick), or handle, which is derived from the identical Citizen's Band radio term.

Computing terminology
IPv6

IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is a version of the Internet Protocol (IP) intended to succeed IPv4, which is the protocol currently used to direct almost all Internet traffic. The Internet operates by transferring data between hosts in packets that are routed across networks as specified by routing protocols. These packets require an addressing scheme, such as IPv4 or IPv6, to specify their source and destination addresses.

1996 introductions IPv6 Internet layer protocols Internet Protocol Network layer protocols
Virtual private network

A virtual private network (VPN) is a private network that interconnects remote (and often geographically separate) networks through primarily public communication infrastructures such as the Internet. VPNs provide security through tunneling protocols and security procedures such as encryption. For example, a VPN could be used to securely connect the branch offices of an organization to a head office network through the public Internet.

Computer network security Internet privacy Virtual private networks Crypto-anarchism Network architecture
Alexa Internet

Alexa Internet, Inc. is a California-based subsidiary company of Amazon. com that is known for its toolbar and website. Once installed, the Alexa toolbar collects data on browsing behavior and transmits it to the website, where it is stored and analyzed, forming the basis for the company's web traffic reporting. Alexa provides traffic data, global rankings and other information on thousands of websites, and claims that 6 million people visit its website monthly.

Marketing research companies of the United States Amazon.com Internet search engines Companies based in San Francisco, California Companies established in 1996 Internet marketing companies
Country code

Country codes are short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes developed to represent countries and dependent areas, for use in data processing and communications. Several different systems have been developed to do this. The best known of these is ISO 3166-1. The term country code frequently refers to international dialing codes, the E.164 country calling codes.

Country codes Geocodes
Online game

An online game is a video game played over some form of computer network or on a video game console such as the Xbox 360 and Playstation 3. This almost always means the Internet or equivalent technology, but games have always used whatever technology was current: modems before the Internet, and hard wired terminals before modems.

Online games
Webcast

A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be distributed live or on demand. Essentially, webcasting is “broadcasting” over the Internet. The largest "webcasters" include existing radio and TV stations, who "simulcast" their output through online TV or online radio streaming, as well as a multitude of Internet only "stations".

Internet television Streaming Internet radio
Spam (electronic)

Spam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online classified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam.

Information technology management Spamming Cybercrime Internet terminology Electronic commerce History of computing Internet ethics Marketing Ethically disputed business practices
Web portal

A web portal is a web site that brings together information from diverse sources in a unified way. Usually, each information source gets its dedicated area on the page for displaying information; often, the user can configure which ones to display. Apart from the standard search engine feature, web portals offer other services such as e-mail, news, stock prices, information, databases and entertainment.

Web portals
Meme

A meme is "an idea, behavior or style that spreads from person to person within a culture. " A meme acts as a unit for carrying cultural ideas, symbols or practices, which can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals or other imitable phenomena. Supporters of the concept regard memes as cultural analogues to genes in that they self-replicate, mutate and respond to selective pressures.

Memes Systemic Risk - Behavioral & Social Facets Greek loanwords Futurology Units of information (cognitive processes) Units of morphological analysis Cultural anthropology 1976 introductions Philosophy of mind Collective intelligence Words coined in the 1970s Evolutionary psychology
Online shopping

Online shopping or Online retailing is a form of electronic commerce whereby consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet without an intermediary service. An online shop, eshop, e-store, Internet shop, webshop, webstore, online store, or virtual store evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a bricks-and-mortar retailer or shopping centre. The process is called business-to-consumer (B2C) online shopping.

Electronic commerce Online retailers
Safari (web browser)

Safari is a web browser developed by Apple Inc. and included with the Mac OS X and iOS operating systems. First released as a public beta on January 7, 2003 on the company's Mac OS X operating system, it became Apple's default browser beginning with Mac OS X v10.3 "Panther". Safari is also the native browser for iOS. A version of Safari for the Microsoft Windows operating system, first released on June 11, 2007, supports Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7.

2003 software News aggregators Mac OS X web browsers Windows web browsers Software based on WebKit Atom (standard) Apple Inc. software Mac OS X IOS software Mobile web browsers
Dial-up Internet access

Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a dialed connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) via telephone lines. The user's computer or router uses an attached modem to encode and decode Internet Protocol packets and control information into and from analogue audio frequency signals, respectively.

Web 1.0 Internet access
General Packet Radio Service

General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and 3G cellular communication system's global system for mobile communications (GSM). GPRS was originally standardized by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) in response to the earlier CDPD and i-mode packet-switched cellular technologies. It is now maintained by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). GPRS usage is typically charged based on volume of data.

1997 introductions Link protocols 3rd Generation Partnership Project standards
Warren Ellis

Warren Girard Ellis (born February 16, 1968) is an English author of comics, novels, and television, who is well known for sociocultural commentary, both through his online presence and through his writing, which covers transhumanist themes. He is a resident of Southend-on-Sea, England.

Living people Warren Ellis 1968 births English webcomic authors English science fiction writers Video game writers English graphic novelists English comics writers Sidewise Award winning authors Avatar Press
Semantic Web

The Semantic Web is a collaborative movement led by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) that promotes common formats for data on the World Wide Web. By encouraging the inclusion of semantic content in web pages, the Semantic Web aims at converting the current web of unstructured documents into a "web of data". It builds on the W3C's Resource Description Framework (RDF).

Semantic Web Web services Buzzwords
Proxy server

In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a file, connection, web page, or other resource available from a different server. The proxy server evaluates the request as a way to simplify and control their complexity.

Internet architecture Computer networking Internet privacy Computer security software Proxy servers Network performance
Submarine communications cable

1 - Polyethylene 2 - Mylar tape 3 - Stranded steel wires 4 - Aluminium water barrier 5 - Polycarbonate 6 - Copper or aluminium tube 7 - Petroleum jelly 8 - Optical fibers]] A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean. The first submarine communications cables carried telegraphy traffic. Subsequent generations of cables carried telephony traffic, then data communications traffic.

Submarine communications cables Telecommunications equipment History of telecommunications Coastal construction
Web page

A web page or webpage is a document or information resource that is suitable for the World Wide Web and can be accessed through a web browser and displayed on a monitor or mobile device. This information is usually in HTML or XHTML format, and may provide navigation to other web pages via hypertext links. Web pages frequently subsume other resources such as style sheets, scripts and images into their final presentation.

World Wide Web
Wireless LAN

A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method, and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet. This gives users the mobility to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network. Most modern WLANs are based on IEEE 802.11 standards, marketed under the Wi-Fi brand name.

American inventions Wireless networking
Internet protocol suite

The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and similar networks, and generally the most popular protocol stack for wide area networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because of its most important protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first networking protocols defined in this standard.

Internet protocols History of the Internet Reference models TCP/IP Network architecture
Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is an American think tank organization based in Washington, D.C. that provides information on issues, attitudes and trends shaping the United States and the world. The Center and its projects receive funding from The Pew Charitable Trusts. In 1990, Donald S. Kellermann was named to serve as the first director of what was initially known as the Times Mirror Center. It was then part of the opinion polling operation run by Times Mirror, the parent of the Los Angeles Times.

Public opinion research companies Social statistics data Think tanks based in the United States Research institutes in the United States Research institutes The Pew Charitable Trusts Organizations based in Washington, D.C.
ICANN

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers is a nonprofit private organization headquartered in Marina del Rey, California, United States, that was created on September 18, 1998, and incorporated on September 30, 1998 to oversee a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed directly on behalf of the U.S. government by other organizations, notably the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), which ICANN now operates.

History of the Internet Internet in the United States Non-profit organizations based in California Internet governance Information technology organisations 1998 establishments Domain name system United States Department of Commerce
Newsletter

A newsletter is a regularly distributed publication generally about one main topic that is of interest to its subscribers. Newspapers and leaflets are types of newsletters. Additionally, newsletters delivered electronically via email (e-Newsletters) have gained rapid acceptance for the same reasons email in general has gained popularity over printed correspondence. Newsletters are given out at schools, to inform parents about things that happen in that school.

Publications by format Digital newspapers Newsletters
Web hosting service

A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their website accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server owned or leased for use by clients, as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center.

Web hosting Website management
Web series

A web series is a series of episodes released on the Internet or also by mobile or cellular phone, and part of the newly emerging medium called web television. A single instance of a web series program is called an episode or webisode. While the popularity of web series is continuing to rise, the concept itself isn't entirely new. Scott Zakarin created the first advertiser supported web series in 1995, The Spot.

Web series Digital media New media
Internet café

Video blogging

Video blogging, sometimes shortened to vlogging (pronounced 'vlogging', as opposed to 'v-logging') or vidding or vidblogging is a form of blogging for which the medium is video, and is a form of Web television. Entries often combine embedded video or a video link with supporting text, images, and other metadata. Entries can be recorded in one take or cut into multiple parts. It is also a very popular category on YouTube.

Blogging Technology in society Internet terminology Internet television Video bloggers Neologisms Film and video technology Web syndication
ISP

Data center

A data center or data centre or computer centre (also datacenter or datacentre) is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes redundant or backup power supplies, redundant data communications connections, environmental controls (e.g. , air conditioning, fire suppression) and security devices.

Distributed data storage Distributed data storage systems Networks Cloud storage Data management Servers (computing) Applications of distributed computing Data centers
Grid computing

Grid computing is a term referring to the federation of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal. The grid can be thought of as a distributed system with non-interactive workloads that involve a large number of files. What distinguishes grid computing from conventional high performance computing systems such as cluster computing is that grids tend to be more loosely coupled, heterogeneous, and geographically dispersed.

Grid computing
Video clip

This page is about the visual medium. Video clips in parts of Europe are synonymous with music videos. For the Thai film see Video Clip (2007 film). For the Olivia Lufkin album see Video Clips (album) Video clips are short clips of video, usually part of a longer recording. The term is also more loosely used to mean any short video less than the length of a traditional television program.

Broadcast engineering Video storage Television terminology Viral videos
Chat room

The term chat room, or chatroom, is primarily used by mass media to describe any form of synchronous conferencing, occasionally even asynchronous conferencing. The term can thus mean any technology ranging from real-time online chat over instant messaging and online forums to fully immersive graphical social environments.

Online chat 1990s fads and trends Internet forum terminology Internet culture
IPv4

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth revision in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP) and the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. Together with IPv6, it is at the core of standards-based internetworking methods of the Internet. As of 2012 IPv4 is still the most widely deployed Internet Layer protocol. IPv4 is described in IETF publication RFC 791 (September 1981), replacing an earlier definition.

Internet standards IPv4 Internet layer protocols Internet Protocol Network layer protocols
Interactive

HTTP cookie

A cookie, also known as an HTTP cookie, web cookie, or browser cookie, is usually a small piece of data sent from a website and stored in a user's web browser while a user is browsing a website. When the user browses the same website in the future, the data stored in the cookie can be retrieved by the website to notify the website of the user's previous activity.

HTTP Internet privacy Wikipedia articles with ASCII art Web security exploits Computer access control HTTP headers
Troll (Internet)

In Internet slang, a troll is someone who posts inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community, such as an online discussion forum, chat room, or blog, with the primary intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or of otherwise disrupting normal on-topic discussion. The noun troll may refer to the provocative message itself, as in: "That was an excellent troll you posted.

Human behavior Internet terminology Internet trolling Internet slang Popular psychology Cyber-bullying Internet forum terminology Culture jamming
Information Age

The Information Age, also commonly known as the Computer Age or Digital Age, is an idea that the current age will be characterized by the ability of individuals to transfer information freely, and to have instant access to information that would have been difficult or impossible to find previously.

21st century Historical eras Postmodernism 20th century Information Age Modern history
Request for Comments

In computer network engineering, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a memorandum published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) describing methods, behaviors, research, or innovations applicable to the working of the Internet and Internet-connected systems. Through the Internet Society, engineers and computer scientists may publish discourse in the form of an RFC, either for peer review or simply to convey new concepts, information, or (occasionally) engineering humor.

Request for Comments
Virtual community

A virtual community is a social network of individuals who interact through specific media, potentially crossing geographical and political boundaries in order to pursue mutual interests or goals. One of the most pervasive types of virtual community include social networking services, which consist of various online communities. The term virtual community is attributed to the book of the same title by Howard Rheingold, published in 1993.

Internet culture Information society Sociology index Virtual communities Technology in society Social software Community building Virtual reality Social information processing Community websites
Intranet

An intranet is a computer network that uses Internet Protocol technology to share information, operational systems, or computing services within an organization. The term is used in contrast to internet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization.

Computer networks Internet privacy
Mass communication

Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of the various means by which individuals and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time. It is usually understood to relate to newspaper and magazine publishing, radio, television and film, as these are used both for disseminating news and for advertising.

Media studies
Online poker

Online poker is the game of poker played over the Internet. It has been partly responsible for a dramatic increase in the number of poker players worldwide. Christiansen Capital Advisors stated online poker revenues grew from $82.7 million in 2001 to $2.4 billion in 2005, while a survey carried out by DrKW and Global Betting and Gaming Consultants asserted online poker revenues in 2004 were at $1.4 billion.

Poker Online gambling Online games
Anonymous (group)

Anonymous (used as a mass noun) is an Internet meme that originated in 2003 on the imageboard 4chan, representing the concept of many online and offline community users simultaneously existing as an anarchic, digitized global brain. It is also generally considered to be a blanket term for members of certain Internet subcultures, a way to refer to the actions of people in an environment where their actual identities are not known.

Internet culture Internet memes Information society Internet vigilantism Intellectual property activism Critics of Scientology Internet activism Internet trolling Cyber-bullying Hacker groups Cyberattacks
Internet television

"Net TV" redirects here. For other uses, see Net (disambiguation). 40x40px This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. It needs additional citations for verification. It may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Internet television (otherwise known as Internet TV, or Online TV) is the digital distribution of television content via the Internet.

Internet broadcasting Digital television Internet television channels Video on demand services Multimedia Streaming media systems Software comparisons Internet television Video hosting Film and video technology Peercasting
Computer worm

A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. Often, it uses a computer network to spread itself. This is due to security shortcomings on the target computer. Unlike a computer virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, even if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses almost always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer.

Malware Computer worms
Internet marketing

Internet marketing, also known as web marketing, online marketing, webvertising, or e-marketing, is referred to as the marketing (generally promotion) of products or services over the Internet. Internet marketing is considered to be broad in scope because it not only refers to marketing on the Internet, but also includes marketing done via e-mail and wireless media.

Internet marketing Marketing by medium Types of marketing
Online chat

Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet, that offers a real-time direct transmission of text-based messages from sender to receiver, hence the delay for visual access to the sent message shall not hamper the flow of communications in any of the directions. Online chat may address point-to-point communications as well as multicast communications from one sender to many receivers and voice and video chat or may be a feature of a Web conferencing service.

Online chat Internet culture
Aspen Institute

The Aspen Institute is an international nonprofit organization founded in 1950 as the Aspen Institute of Humanistic Studies. The organization is dedicated to "fostering enlightened leadership, the appreciation of timeless ideas and values, and open-minded dialogue on contemporary issues".

Roaring Fork Valley United States political action committees Humanist associations Foreign policy and strategy think tanks in the United States Political and economic think tanks in the United States International nongovernmental organizations Think tanks established in 1950 Non-profit organizations based in Washington, D.C.
IMac

The iMac is a range of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers designed and built by Apple Inc.. It has been the primary part of Apple's consumer desktop offerings since its introduction in 1998, and has evolved through five distinct forms. In its original form, the iMac G3 had a gum-drop or egg-shaped look, with a CRT monitor, mainly enclosed by a colored, translucent plastic case, which was refreshed early on with a sleeker design notable for its slot-loaded optical drive.

PowerPC Macintosh computers Sealed computers X86 Macintosh computers 1998 introductions Macintosh all-in-ones IMac series
Electronic mailing list

An electronic mailing list is a special usage of email that allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users.

Electronic mailing lists Social information processing Email
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the entity that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and numbers. IANA is a department operated by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, also known as ICANN.

History of the Internet Internet in the United States Internet governance Internet standards Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
Nigerian scam

419 scams, frequently called Nigerian scams is a summary name for a large number of confidence frauds in which the victim is defrauded for monetary gain.

Spamming Crime Crime in Nigeria Non-sufficient funds Social engineering (computer security)
List of Internet phenomena

This is a list of phenomena specific to the Internet, such as popular themes and catchphrases, images, viral videos and more. Such fads and sensations grow rapidly on the Internet because its instant communication facilitates word of mouth. In the early days of the Internet, phenomena were primarily spread via email or Usenet discussion communities.

Internet memes History of the Internet
Trader (finance)

A trader is someone in finance who buys and sells financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, commodities and derivatives. Traders are either professionals working in a financial institution or a corporation, or individual investors, or day traders. They buy and sell financial instruments traded in the stock markets, derivatives markets and commodity markets, comprising the stock exchanges, derivatives exchanges and the commodities exchanges.

Financial markets Stock market Business and financial operations occupations Commodities market
4chan

4chan is an English-language imageboard website. Launched on October 1, 2003, its boards were originally used for the posting of pictures and discussion of manga and anime. Users generally post anonymously and the site has been linked to Internet subcultures and activism, most notably Project Chanology. 4chan users have been responsible for the formation or popularization of Internet memes such as lolcats, Rickrolling, "Chocolate Rain", Pedobear and many others.

Internet memes 2channel American websites Internet properties established in 2003 Internet trolling Internet forums Community websites
Port (computer networking)

In computer networking a port is an application-specific or process-specific software construct serving as a communications endpoint in a computer's host operating system. A port is associated with an IP address of the host, as well as the type of protocol used for communication. The protocols that primarily use the ports are the Transport Layer protocols, such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) of the Internet Protocol Suite.

Internet protocols
ESPNcricinfo

ESPNcricinfo is a sports news website devoted entirely to the sport of cricket. The site features news, articles, live coverage of matches (including liveblogs and scorecards), and StatsGuru, a database of historical matches and players from the 18th century to the present The site, originally conceived in a pre-World Wide Web form in 1993 by Dr. Simon King, was acquired in 2002 by the Wisden Group — publishers of several notable Cricket magazines and the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack.

ESPN Gopher (protocol) Cricket websites Sports media in India
Peer-to-peer file sharing

Peer-to-peer file sharing (known in internet shorthand as "P2P") allows users to download media files such as music, movies, and games using a P2P software client that searches for other connected computers. The "peers" are computer systems connected to each other through the Internet. Thus, the only requirements for a computer to join peer-to-peer networks are an Internet connection and P2P software.

Peer-to-peer file sharing Intellectual property law Internet terminology
Online newspaper

An online newspaper, also known as a web newspaper, is a newspaper that exists on the World Wide Web or Internet, either separately or as an online version of a printed periodical. Going online created more opportunities for newspapers, such as competing with broadcast journalism in presenting breaking news in a more timely manner.

Electronic publishing Newspapers by medium Digital newspapers Newsletters
Internet Message Access Protocol

Internet message access protocol (IMAP) is one of the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval, the other being the Post Office Protocol (POP). Virtually all modern e-mail clients and mail servers support both protocols as a means of transferring e-mail messages from a server.

Internet mail protocols Application layer protocols
John Doe

The names "John Doe" for males and "Jane Doe" or "Jane Roe" for females are used as placeholder names for a party whose true identity is unknown or must be withheld in a legal action, case, or discussion. The names are also used to refer to a corpse or hospital patient whose identity is unknown.

Anonymity pseudonyms Placeholder names
Computer crime

Computer crime refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Netcrime refers to criminal exploitation of the Internet.

Computer crimes Organized crime activity
Mozilla Thunderbird

Mozilla Thunderbird is a free, open source, cross-platform email and news client developed by the Mozilla Foundation. The project strategy is modeled after Mozilla Firefox, a project aimed at creating a web browser. On December 7, 2004, version 1.0 was released, and received over 500,000 downloads in its first three days of release, and 1,000,000 in 10 days.

2003 software News aggregators Cross-platform free software OS/2 software Mac OS X software Mozilla Thunderbird Windows email clients Free software programmed in C++ Free email software Unix internet software Portable software Linux email clients Mac OS X email clients Free multilingual software Windows software Free Usenet clients
Dot-com company

A dot-com company, or simply a dot-com (alternatively rendered dot. com or dot com), is a company that does most of its business on the Internet, usually through a website that uses the popular top-level domain, ". com" (in turn derived from the word "commercial"). While the term can refer to present-day companies, it is also used specifically to refer to companies with this business model that came into being during the late 1990s.

Online companies Internet companies
Wireless access point

In computer networking, a wireless access point (WAP) is a device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or related standards. The WAP usually connects to a router (via a wired network) if it's a standalone device, or is part of router itself.

Wireless access points Telecommunications infrastructure Network access IEEE 802.11 Wireless networking hardware
Yellow Pages

Yellow Pages refers to a telephone directory of businesses, organized by category, rather than alphabetically by business name and in which advertising is sold. As the name suggests, such directories were originally printed on yellow paper, as opposed to white pages for non-commercial listings. The traditional term Yellow Pages is now also applied to online directories of businesses.

Yellow Pages Advertising by medium
Internet slang

Internet slang (Internet short-hand, Cyber-slang, netspeak or chatspeak) refers to a variety of everyday languages used by different communities on the Internet. It is difficult to provide a standardized definition of Internet slang due to the constant changes made to its nature. However, it can be understood to be a type of slang that Internet users have popularized, and in many cases, have coined. Such terms often originate with the purpose of saving keystrokes.

Internet culture Internet memes Occupational cryptolects Internet slang Computer-mediated communication
Country code top-level domain

A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, a sovereign state, or a dependent territory. All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs. In 2010, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code TLDs, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application.

Country codes Top-level domains Domain name system
PageRank

PageRank is a link analysis algorithm, named after Larry Page and used by the Google Internet search engine, that assigns a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents, such as the World Wide Web, with the purpose of "measuring" its relative importance within the set. The algorithm may be applied to any collection of entities with reciprocal quotations and references.

Reputation management Link analysis Internet search algorithms Crowdsourcing Search engine optimization Markov models American inventions Google
List of Pokémon

Server Message Block

In computer networking, Server Message Block (SMB), also known as Common Internet File System operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network. It also provides an authenticated inter-process communication mechanism.

Windows communication and services Application layer protocols Network protocols Inter-process communication Network file systems
Internet leak

An Internet leak occurs when a party's confidential information is released to the public on the Internet. Various types of information and data can be, and have been, "leaked" to the Internet, the most common being personal information, computer software and source code, and artistic works such as books or albums.

Intellectual property law Internet terminology Computer security
Internet Information Services

Internet Information Services (IIS) – formerly called Internet Information Server – is a web server application and set of feature extension modules created by Microsoft for use with Microsoft Windows. IIS 7.5 supports HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS, SMTP and NNTP. It is an integral part of Windows Server family of products, as well as certain editions of Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7. IIS is not turned on by default when Windows is installed.

FTP server software Web server software Microsoft server technology Message transfer agents
Webmaster

A webmaster (from web and master), also called a web architect, web developer, site author, or website administrator, is a person responsible for maintaining one or many websites. The duties of the webmaster may include ensuring that the web servers, hardware and software are operating correctly, designing the website, generating and revising web pages, replying to user comments, and examining traffic through the site.

Computer occupations Website management
Online dating service

Online dating (OD) or Internet dating is a dating system which allows individuals, couples and groups to make contact and communicate with each other over the Internet, usually with the objective of developing a personal, romantic, or sexual relationship. Online dating services usually provide unmoderated matchmaking over the Internet, through the use of personal computers or cell phones.

Online dating services Social software Intimate relationships
McSweeney's

McSweeney's is an American publishing house founded by editor Dave Eggers. Apart from its book list, McSweeney's also publishes the quarterly literary journal Timothy McSweeney's Quarterly Concern, the daily-updated literature and humor site McSweeney's Internet Tendency, the monthly magazine The Believer, the quarterly food journal Lucky Peach, the sports journal Grantland Quarterly in association with sports and pop culture website Grantland, and the quarterly DVD magazine, Wholphin.

Magazine publishing companies Publishing companies established in 1998 Companies based in San Francisco, California McSweeney's Book publishing companies based in California
Optus

SingTel Optus Pty Limited is the second largest telecommunications company in Australia, and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Singapore Telecommunications. The company primarily trades under the Optus brand, while maintaining several wholly owned subsidiary brands, such as Virgin Mobile Australia and Boost Mobile in the mobile telephony market, Uecomm in the network services market and Alphawest in the ICT services sector.

Companies based in Sydney Optus Temasek Holdings Mobile phone companies Internet service providers of Australia Telecommunications companies of Australia Satellite operators
Penny Arcade (webcomic)

Penny Arcade is a webcomic focused on video games and video game culture, written by Jerry Holkins and illustrated by Mike Krahulik. The comic debuted in 1998 on the website loonygames. com. Since then, Holkins and Krahulik have established their own site, which is typically updated with a new comic strip each Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The comics are accompanied by regular updates on the site's blog.

Fandom webcomics Web Cartoonists' Choice Award winners Video game webcomics Penny Arcade (series) 1990s webcomics Comedy webcomics Short form webcomics Webcomics in print Metafictional works 2000s webcomics 2010s webcomics
Online music store

An online music store is an online business which sells audio files, usually music, on a per-song and/or subscription basis. It may be differentiated from music streaming services in that the music store offers the actual music file, while streaming services offer partial or full listening without actually owning the source file. However, music stores generally offer partial streaming previews, some even with full length.

Online content distribution Online music stores
Web colors

Web colors are colors used in designing web pages, and the methods for describing and specifying those colors. Colors may be specified as an RGB triplet or in hexadecimal format (a hex triplet). They may also be specified according to their common English names in some cases. Often a color tool or other graphics software is used to generate color values. Hexadecimal color codes begin with a hash (#).

Web design Color
Content-control software

Content-control software, also known as secure web gateways, censorware or web filtering software, is a term for software designed and optimized for controlling what content is permitted to a reader, especially when it is used to restrict material delivered over the Web. Content-control software determines what content will be available.

Web browsers Internet censorship Content-control software Digital rights management
CenturyLink

CenturyLink, Inc. is a global broadband and telecommunications company headquartered in Monroe, Louisiana. The company, founded as Central Telephone & Electronics Corporation in 1968, later changed its name to Century Telephone Enterprises, Inc. in 1971, and then was called CenturyTel, Inc. from 1999 to 2010. A member of the S&P 500 index, the company operates as a local exchange carrier and Internet service provider in U.S.

Pay telephone operators of the United States Companies listed on NASDAQ Internet service providers of the United States CenturyLink Companies established in 1968 Telecommunications companies of the United States Companies based in Louisiana
Online banking

Online banking (or Internet banking or E-banking) allows customers of a financial institution to conduct financial transactions on a secure website operated by the institution, which can be a retail or virtual bank, credit union or building society. To access a financial institution's online banking facility, a customer having personal Internet access must register with the institution for the service, and set up some password (under various names) for customer verification.

Banking technology Web applications
MIME

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet standard that extends the format of email to support: Text in character sets other than ASCII Non-text attachments Message bodies with multiple parts Header information in non-ASCII character sets MIME's use, however, has grown beyond describing the content of email to describe content type in general, including for the web and as a storage for rich content in some commercial products.

Presentation layer protocols Application layer protocols HTTP Internet standards Email
Cable modem

A cable modem is a type of network bridge and modem that provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a HFC and RFoG infrastructure. Cable modems are primarily used to deliver broadband Internet access in the form of cable Internet, taking advantage of the high bandwidth of a HFC and RFoG network. They are commonly deployed in Australia, Europe, Asia and the Americas.

Modems Cable television technology Digital cable Internet access
Citizen journalism

The concept of citizen journalism (also known as "public", "participatory", "democratic", "guerrilla" or "street" journalism) is based upon public citizens "playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing, and disseminating news and information. " Citizen journalism should not be confused with community journalism or civic journalism, both of which are practiced by professional journalists.

Technology in society Citizen media Citizen journalism Online journalism
LOL

LOL, an abbreviation for laughing out loud, or laugh out loud, is a common element of Internet slang. It was used historically on Usenet but is now widespread in other forms of computer-mediated communication, and even face-to-face communication. It is one of many initialisms for expressing bodily reactions, in particular laughter, as text, including initialisms for more emphatic expressions of laughter such as LMAO ("laugh my ass off"), and ROTFL or ROFL ("roll on the floor laughing").

Texting codes 2010s slang Internet memes 2000s slang Internet slang Slang 1990s slang
NSA warrantless surveillance controversy

The NSA warrantless surveillance controversy (AKA "Warrantless Wiretapping") concerns surveillance of persons within the United States during the collection of foreign intelligence by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) as part of the war on terror.

Counter-terrorism policy of the United States Espionage George W. Bush administration controversies Privacy of telecommunications National Security Agency Mass surveillance United States national security policy Surveillance scandals Emergency laws
Electronic voting

Electronic voting (also known as e-voting) is a term encompassing several different types of voting, embracing both electronic means of casting a vote and electronic means of counting votes. Electronic voting technology can include punched cards, optical scan voting systems and specialized voting kiosks (including self-contained direct-recording electronic voting systems, or DRE). It can also involve transmission of ballots and votes via telephones, private computer networks, or the Internet.

Information society Electronic voting
Online advertising

Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web to deliver marketing messages to attract customers. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads on search engine results pages, banner ads, blogs, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, interstitial ads, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam. Many of these types of ads are delivered by an Ad server.

Internet advertising methods
Cox Enterprises

Cox Enterprises is the successor to the publishing company founded in Dayton, Ohio, United States, by James Middleton Cox, who began with the Dayton Daily News. He was the Democratic candidate for the President of the United States in the election of 1920. The company is private, 98 percent controlled by the nonagenarian daughter of Cox, Anne Cox Chambers, and the two children of her late sister Barbara Cox Anthony. The chairman is Anthony's son, James C. Kennedy.

Companies based in Sandy Springs, Georgia Cable television companies of the United States Cox Enterprises Privately held companies based in Georgia (U.S. state) Telecommunications companies of the United States Television broadcasting companies of the United States Companies based in Dayton, Ohio
Avenue Q

Avenue Q is an American musical in two acts, conceived by Robert Lopez and Jeff Marx, who wrote the music and lyrics. The book was written by Jeff Whitty and the show was directed by Jason Moore and produced by Kevin McCollum, Robyn Goodman, and Jeffrey Seller. Avenue Q is an "autobiographical and biographical" coming-of-age parable, addressing and satirizing the issues and anxieties associated with entering adulthood.

Plays set in New York City Fictional streets and roads Original musicals Off-Broadway musicals 2003 musicals West End musicals Broadway musicals Tony Award winning musicals Puppetry LGBT-related musicals Muppet parodies
Gateway (telecommunications)

In telecommunications, the term gateway has the following meaning: In a communications network, a network node equipped for interfacing with another network that uses different protocols. A gateway may contain devices such as protocol translators, impedance matching devices, rate converters, fault isolators, or signal translators as necessary to provide system interoperability. It also requires the establishment of mutually acceptable administrative procedures between both networks.

Networking hardware Internet architecture Videotelephony Routers (computing)
Electronic money

For electronic payments in conventional currencies, see Electronic funds transfer. 50x40px This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Electronic money (also known as e-currency, e-money, electronic cash, electronic currency, digital money, digital cash, digital currency, cyber currency) is money or scrip that is only exchanged electronically.

Payment systems Banking technology Digital technology Financial cryptography Electronic commerce Electronic currencies Marketing Cryptographic protocols
Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China

Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China is conducted under a wide variety of laws and administrative regulations. In accordance with these laws, more than sixty Internet regulations have been made by the People's Republic of China (PRC) government, implemented by provincial branches of state-owned ISPs, business companies, and organizations. The apparatus of the PRC's Internet repression is considered more extensive and more advanced than in any other country in the world.

Internet censorship Internet in the People's Republic of China Cyberwarfare Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China Human rights in the People's Republic of China
IPsec

Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a communication session. IPsec also includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiation of cryptographic keys to be used during the session. IPsec is an end-to-end security scheme operating in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite.

Internet protocols Tunneling protocols Internet layer protocols Network layer protocols Cryptographic protocols
Online auction

]] An online auction is an auction which is held over the internet. Online auctions come in many different formats, but most popularly they are ascending English auctions, descending Dutch auctions, first-price sealed-bid, Vickrey auctions, or sometimes even a combination of multiple auctions, taking elements of one and forging them with another. The scope and reach of these auctions have been propelled by the Internet to a level beyond what the initial purveyors had anticipated.

Auction theory Auctioneering
Web cache

A web cache is a mechanism for the temporary storage of web documents, such as HTML pages and images, to reduce bandwidth usage, server load, and perceived lag. A web cache stores copies of documents passing through it; subsequent requests may be satisfied from the cache if certain conditions are met. It should not be confused with a web archive, a site that keeps old versions of web pages.

HTTP Cache (computing) Proxy servers
Internet exchange point

An Internet exchange point (IX or IXP) is a physical infrastructure through which Internet service providers (ISPs) exchange Internet traffic between their networks. IXPs reduce the portion of an ISP's traffic which must be delivered via their upstream transit providers, thereby reducing the average per-bit delivery cost of their service. Furthermore, the increased number of paths learned through the IXP improves routing efficiency and fault-tolerance.

Internet exchange points Routing Wide area networks
Fiber-optic communication

Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. First developed in the 1970s, fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and have played a major role in the advent of the Information Age.

Fiber-optic communications Photonics Emerging technologies
Internet censorship

Internet censorship is the control or suppression of the publishing of, or access to information on the Internet. It may be carried out by governments or by private organizations at the behest of government, regulators, or on their own initiative. Individuals and organizations may engage in self-censorship for moral, religious, or business reasons, to conform to societal norms, due to intimidation, or out of fear of legal or other consequences.

Internet censorship Computer network security Information society Content-control software Privacy Internet ethics
Internet Explorer 7

Windows Internet Explorer 7 (abbreviated as IE7) is a web browser released by Microsoft in October 2006. Internet Explorer 7 is part of a long line of versions of Internet Explorer and was the first major update to the browser in more than 5 years. It ships as the default browser in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 and is offered as a replacement for Internet Explorer 6 for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.

News aggregators Windows web browsers FTP clients Internet Explorer Windows Server 2008 2006 software Windows components Windows XP Windows Vista
Rich Internet application

A Rich Internet Application (RIA) is a Web application that has many of the characteristics of desktop application software, typically delivered by way of a site-specific browser, a browser plug-in, an independent sandbox, extensive use of JavaScript, or a virtual machine. Adobe Flash, JavaFX, and Microsoft Silverlight are currently the three most common platforms, with desktop browser penetration rates around 96%, 76%, and 66% respectively (as of August 2011).

Rich Internet applications Web 2.0 Software architecture Cloud computing
Insane asylum

Media bias

Media bias is the bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media in the selection of events and stories that are reported and how they are covered. The term "media bias" implies a pervasive or widespread bias contravening the standards of journalism, rather than the perspective of an individual journalist or article. The direction and degree of media bias in various countries is widely disputed.

Media bias controversies
Ubiquitous computing

Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) is a post-desktop model of human-computer interaction in which information processing has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. In the course of ordinary activities, someone "using" ubiquitous computing engages many computational devices and systems simultaneously, and may not necessarily even be aware that they are doing so. This model is usually considered an advancement from the desktop paradigm.

Ubiquitous computing
Eve Online

Eve Online (stylised EVE Online) is a video game by CCP Games. It is a player-driven, persistent-world MMORPG set in a science fiction space setting. Characters pilot customizable ships through a galaxy of over 7,500 star systems. Most star systems are connected to one or more other star systems by means of stargates. The star systems can contain moons, planets, stations, wormholes, asteroid belts and complexes.

Space opera video games Virtual economy Eve Online MMORPGs in space Windows games Space trading and combat simulators Mac OS X games Video games developed in Iceland Linux games Virtual reality Python-scripted video games 2003 video games Video games with expansion packs Science-fiction MMORPGs
Lag

Lag is a common word meaning to fail to keep up or to fall behind. In real-time applications, the term is used when the application fails to respond in a timely fashion to inputs. The most common use regards online gaming when the game doesn't respond in sync with the player's controls, usually due to a slow internet connection, server latency or overworked hardware.

Game terminology Video game culture Packets (information technology)
Hotspot (Wi-Fi)

A hotspot is a site that offers Internet access over a wireless local area network through the use of a router connected to a link to an Internet service provider. Hotspots typically use Wi-Fi technology. Hotspots may be found in coffee shops and various other public establishments throughout much of the developed world.

Wi-Fi Wireless access points
Power line communication

Power line communication (PLC) is a system for carrying data on a conductor that is also used for electric power transmission. It is also known as power line carrier, power line digital subscriber line (PDSL), mains communication, power line telecom (PLT), power line networking (PLN), and broadband over power lines (BPL), A wide range of power line communication technologies are needed for different applications, ranging from home automation to Internet access.

Computer networking Internet access
Internet Society

The Internet Society or ISOC is an international, non-profit organization founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet related standards, education, and policy. It states that its mission is "to assure the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world". The Internet Society has offices near Washington, DC, USA, and in Geneva, Switzerland.

Internet governance Internet standards Organizations established in 1992 History of the Internet
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland is the senior antiquarian body in Scotland, with its headquarters in the National Museum of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh. The Society's aim is to promote the cultural heritage of Scotland.

Archaeological professional associations Archaeology of Scotland Organizations established in 1780 Archaeological organisations 1780 establishments in Scotland Organisations based in Edinburgh with royal patronage Learned societies of Scotland Archives in Scotland
Maemo

Maemo is a software platform developed by the Maemo community for smartphones and Internet tablets. It is based on the Debian Linux distribution, but has no relation to it. The platform comprises the Maemo operating system and the Maemo SDK. Maemo is mostly based on open source code, and has been developed by Maemo Devices within Nokia in collaboration with many open source projects such as the Linux kernel, Debian, and GNOME.

Debian-based distributions Linux distributions used in appliances Mobile operating systems Nokia platforms Embedded Linux distributions
KPN

KPN (in full Koninklijke KPN N.V. , also Royal KPN N.V. ) is a Dutch landline and mobile telecommunications company, including both 2G and 3G mobile operations. The company is based in The Hague.

Telecommunications companies of Belgium Telecommunications companies of the Netherlands Telecommunications companies of Spain Companies formerly listed on the London Stock Exchange Telecommunications companies of Germany KPN
Internet bot

Internet bots, also known as web robots, WWW robots or simply bots, are software applications that run automated tasks over the Internet. Typically, bots perform tasks that are both simple and structurally repetitive, at a much higher rate than would be possible for a human alone. The largest use of bots is in web spidering, in which an automated script fetches, analyzes and files information from web servers at many times the speed of a human.

Bots
Internet pornography

Internet pornography is pornography that is accessible over the Internet, primarily via websites, peer-to-peer file sharing, or Usenet newsgroups. While pornography had been available over the Internet since the 1980s, it was the availability of widespread public access to the World Wide Web in 1991 that led to an expansion of Internet pornography. The Internet enables people to access pornography more or less anonymously and to view it in the comfort and privacy of their homes.

Erotica and pornography websites Pornography
Online gambling

Online gambling, also known as Internet gambling and iGambling, is a general term for gambling using the Internet.

Online gambling
Mediacom

Mediacom is a cable television and communications provider in the United States. Founded in July 1995, it serves primarily smaller markets in the Midwest and Southern United States. Formerly a publicly traded firm, it went private in a $600.0 million transaction in March 2011 and is, as of 2011, owned by CEO Rocco B. Commisso.

Cable television companies of the United States Telecommunications companies of the United States Middletown, New York Companies established in 1995 Companies based in Orange County, New York
Data (computing)

In computer science, data is information in a form suitable for use with a computer. Data is often distinguished from programs. A program is a sequence of instructions that detail a task for the computer to perform. In this sense, data is thus everything in a software that is not program code. Physical computer memory elements consist of an address and a byte/word of data storage. Digital data can be reduced to key/value pair combinations .

Computer data
Bibliographic database

A bibliographic database is a database of bibliographic records, an organized digital collection of references to published literature, including journal and newspaper articles, conference proceedings, reports, government and legal publications, patents, books, etc. In contrast to library catalogue entries, a large proportion of the bibliographic records in bibliographic databases describe analytics (articles, conference papers, etc.

Bibliographic databases Information science Library 2.0 Library science
Zack Ryder

Matt Cardona (born May 14, 1985), better known by his ring name Zack Ryder, is an American professional wrestler signed to WWE and appearing on its Raw brand. Cardona wrestled mostly with his tag team partner Brian Myers/Curt Hawkins on the independent circuit and initially in WWE, where they won the WWE Tag Team Championship. After the team split in 2009, Cardona was featured sparingly on WWE television.

American professional wrestlers Living people People from Long Island 1985 births
Eircom

Eircom Group LTD (aka "eircom") is a fixed, mobile and broadband telecommunications company in the Republic of Ireland, and a former state-owned incumbent. It is currently the largest telecommunications operator in the Republic of Ireland and operates primarily on the island of Ireland, with a point of presence in Great Britain. As Bord Telecom Éireann, the company was (until 1999) a state monopoly; as a private company, it continues to dominate many telecommunications areas.

Private equity portfolio companies Telecommunications companies of the Republic of Ireland Internet companies of the Republic of Ireland Internet companies of Ireland Companies listed on the Irish Stock Exchange Telecommunications in the Republic of Ireland
Alexander von Humboldt Foundation

The Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (German: Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung) is a foundation set-up by the government of the Federal Republic and funded by the German Foreign Office, the Ministry of Education and Research, the Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development and others for the promotion of international co-operation between German institutes of higher education and leading academics from around the world.

Science and technology in Germany Scientific research foundations Organisations based in Bonn
Internet service providers

Mobile Web

The Mobile Web refers access to the world wide web, i.e. the use of browser-based Internet services, from a handheld mobile device, such as a smartphone, a feature phone or a tablet computer, connected to a mobile network or other wireless network. Traditionally, access to the Web has been via fixed-line services on large-screen laptops and desktop computers.

Internet standards Mobile Web
Ping

Ping is a computer network administration utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network and to measure the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer. The name comes from active sonar terminology which sends a pulse of sound and listens for the echo. Ping operates by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packets to the target host and waiting for an ICMP response.

Windows communication and services Windows administration Network analyzers Free network management software Internet Protocol based network software Unix network-related software
Internet art

Internet art (often referred to as net art) is a form of digital artwork distributed via the Internet. This form of art has circumvented the traditional dominance of the gallery and museum system, delivering aesthetic experiences via the Internet. In many cases, the viewer is drawn into some kind of interaction with the work of art. Artists working in this manner are sometimes referred to as net artists.

Digital art Contemporary art Internet culture Computer art
Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying is the use of the Internet and related technologies to harm other people, in a deliberate, repeated, and hostile manner. As it has become more common in society, particularly among young people, legislation and awareness campaigns have arisen to combat it.

Bullying Abuse Computer crimes Cyber-bullying
Warez

Warez refers primarily to copyrighted works distributed without fees or royalties, and may be traded, in general violation of copyright law. The term generally refers to unauthorized releases by organized groups, as opposed to file sharing between friends or large groups of people with similar interest using a darknet. It usually does not refer to commercial software counterfeiting.

Copyright infringement of software Internet slang Software cracking Warez
Bookmark (World Wide Web)

In the context of the World Wide Web, a bookmark is a locally stored Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). All modern web browsers include bookmark features. Bookmarks are called favorites or Internet shortcuts in Internet Explorer, and by virtue of that browser's large market share, these terms have been synonymous with bookmark since the first browser war. Bookmarks are normally accessed through a menu in the user's web browser, and folders are commonly used for organization.

Web browsers Internet terminology
Electronic publishing

Electronic publishing (also referred to as ePublishing or digital publishing) includes the digital publication of e-books, EPUBs, and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues. Electronic publishing has become common in scientific publishing where it has been argued that peer-reviewed scientific journals are in the process of being replaced by electronic publishing.

Electronic publishing Publishing terms
E-Government

E-Government (short for electronic government, also known as e-gov, digital government, online government, or connected government) is digital interactions between a government and citizens (G2C), government and businesses/Commerce (G2B), government and employees (G2E), and also between government and governments /agencies (G2G).

Technology in society E-Government Open government Public administration
Internet media type

An Internet media type is a two-part identifier for file formats on the Internet. The identifiers were originally defined in RFC 2046 for use in email sent through SMTP, but their use has expanded to other protocols such as HTTP, RTP and SIP. These types were called MIME types, and are sometimes referred to as Content-types, after the name of a header in several protocols whose value is such a type.

Computer file formats
Domain name registrar

A domain name registrar is an organization or commercial entity, accredited by a generic top-level domain registry (gTLD) and/or by a country code top-level domain (ccTLD) registry, to manage the reservation of Internet domain names in accordance with the guidelines of the designated domain name registries and to offer such services to the public.

Domain registrars Domain name system
Mail-order bride

A Mail-order bride is a woman who lists herself in catalogs (online or otherwise) and is selected by men for marriage. Although historically mail-order brides came from well-developed areas to marry men in overseas colonies and frontier lands, the trend has reversed. Recently, the trend is towards women living in developing countries seeking men in more-developed countries.

Marriage Human migration Slang terms for women
GeoCities

Yahoo! GeoCities is a Web hosting service, currently available only in Japan. GeoCities was originally founded by David Bohnett and John Rezner in late 1994 as Beverly Hills Internet (BHI). In its original form, site users selected a "city" in which to place their Web pages.

Discontinued Yahoo! services Internet properties disestablished in 2009 Web 1.0 Free web hosting services Virtual communities Internet properties established in 1994 Yahoo! Publishing Web hosting
Web feed

A web feed (or news feed) is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content. Content distributors syndicate a web feed, thereby allowing users to subscribe to it. Making a collection of web feeds accessible in one spot is known as aggregation, which is performed by an aggregator. A web feed is also sometimes referred to as a syndicated feed.

Change detection and notification XML-based standards Web syndication
Flaming (Internet)

Flaming, also known as bashing, is hostile and insulting interaction between Internet users, often involving the use of profanity. Flaming usually occurs in the social context of an Internet forum, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Usenet, by e-mail, game servers such as Xbox Live or Playstation Network, and on video-sharing websites.

Article Feedback 5 Internet forum terminology Internet culture Internet trolling
Shock jock

Shock jock is a slang term used to describe a type of any radio broadcaster who attracts attention using humor that a significant portion of the listening audience may find offensive. The term is usually used pejoratively to describe provocative or irreverent broadcasters whose mannerisms, statements and actions are typically offensive to many listeners. It is a general-media term, rarely or never used within the radio industry.

Radio personalities
Network neutrality

Network neutrality (also net neutrality, Internet neutrality) is a principle that advocates no restrictions by Internet service providers or governments on consumers' access to networks that participate in the internet. Specifically, network neutrality would prevent restrictions on content, sites, platforms, types of equipment that may be attached, and modes of communication.

Network neutrality Computer law Internet access
Network socket

A network socket is an endpoint of an inter-process communication flow across a computer network. Today, most communication between computers is based on the Internet Protocol; therefore most network sockets are Internet sockets. A socket API is an application programming interface (API), usually provided by the operating system, that allows application programs to control and use network sockets. Internet socket APIs are usually based on the Berkeley sockets standard.

Network socket TCP/IP
Watchdog journalism

A watchdog is defined as "a person or group of persons that acts as a protector or guardian against inefficiency, illegal practices" by the Collins English Dictionary. In news journalism a watchdog journalist also fulfills this function of a guardian. The term watchdog journalism is strongly related to the practice investigative journalism. To perform in an investigative manner, the journalist is in the "role" of a watchdog.

Investigative journalism Journalism genres
Gopher (protocol)

The Gopher protocol is a TCP/IP application layer protocol designed for distributing, searching, and retrieving documents over the Internet. Strongly oriented towards a menu-document design, the Gopher protocol presented an attractive alternative to the World Wide Web in its early stages, but ultimately failed to achieve popularity. The protocol offers some features not natively supported by the Web and imposes a much stronger hierarchy on information stored on it.

Application layer protocols Internet protocols History of the Internet Gopher (protocol) University of Minnesota software Internet standards
Internet Control Message Protocol

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. It is chiefly used by the operating systems of networked computers to send error messages indicating, for example, that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached. ICMP can also be used to relay query messages. It is assigned protocol number 1.

Internet layer protocols Internet protocols Internet standards Network layer protocols
Niki Sanders

Nicole "Niki" Sanders is a fictional character portrayed by Ali Larter in the television series Heroes. Niki is the wife of D. L. Hawkins and mother of Micah Sanders. Niki, a sufferer of Dissociative Identity Disorder, displays superhuman strength, being able to literally rip others in half. Initially, she is able to access this power only when her alter ego "Jessica" is in control.

Fictional mass murderers Fictional gamblers Fictional erotic dancers Heroes characters Fictional genetically engineered characters Fictional adoptees Fictional characters from Las Vegas, Nevada Fictional characters with superhuman strength Fictional characters introduced in 2006 Fictional assassins Fictional characters with multiple personalities Fictional triplets
Legal aspects of computing

Legal aspects of computing are related to the over-lapping areas of law and computing. The first one, historically, was information technology law (or IT law). (It should not be confused with the IT aspects of law itself, albeit there is an overlap between the two, as well). IT Law is a set of legal enactments, currently in existence in several countries, which governs the digital dissemination of both information and software itself.

Information technology Computer law Cyberspace
Cyberculture

Cyberculture is the culture that has emerged, or is emerging, from the use of computer networks for communication, entertainment and business. It is also the study of various social phenomena associated with the Internet and other new forms of network communication, such as online communities, online multi-player gaming, social gaming, social media and texting.

Information society Computing culture Internet culture Cyberspace
Triple play (telecommunications)

In telecommunications, triple play service is a marketing term for the provisioning of two bandwidth-intensive services, high-speed Internet access and television, and a less bandwidth-demanding (but more latency-sensitive) service, telephone, over a single broadband connection. Triple play focuses on a combined business model rather than solving technical issues or a common standard. However, single standards like G. hn do exist to deliver all these services on a common platform.

Digital television Telecommunication services
Internet2

Internet2 is an advanced not-for-profit United States networking consortium led by members from the research and education communities, industry, and government. In 2009, Internet2 member rolls included over 200 higher education institutions, over 40 members from industry, over 30 research and education network and connector organizations, and over 50 affiliate members.

Academic computer network organizations Science and technology in the United States Consortia History of the Internet
Hacktivism

Hacktivism is the use of computers and computer networks as a means of protest to promote political ends. The term was first coined in 1996 by a member of the Cult of the Dead Cow hacker collective named Omega. If hacking as "illegally breaking into computers" is assumed, then hacktivism could be defined as "the use of legal and/or illegal digital tools in pursuit of political ends".

Culture jamming techniques Intellectual property activism Activism by method Technology in society Internet terminology Hacking (computer security) Words coined in the 2000s Politics and technology
Prodigy (online service)

Prodigy Communications Corporation (Prodigy Services Corp. , Prodigy Services Co. , Trintex) was an online service that offered its subscribers access to a broad range of networked services, including news, weather, shopping, bulletin boards, games, polls, expert columns, banking, stocks, travel, and a variety of other features. Initially subscribers using personal computers accessed the Prodigy service by means of POTS or X.25 dialup.

AT&T Discontinued web browsers Internet service providers of the United States Pre–World Wide Web online services Online service providers Internet service providers of Mexico
Internet Chess Club

The Internet Chess Club (ICC) is a commercial Internet chess server devoted to the play and discussion of chess and chess variants. ICC currently has over 30,000 subscribing members. It was the first Internet chess server and is the first and largest pay to play chess server.

Internet properties established in 1995 Companies based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Chess websites Internet chess servers
Streaming video

Vint Cerf

Vinton Gray "Vint" Cerf is an American computer scientist, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with American computer scientist Bob Kahn. His contributions have been acknowledged and lauded, repeatedly, with honorary degrees and awards that include the National Medal of Technology, the Turing Award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and membership in the National Academy of Engineering.

Google employees Computer pioneers Turing Award laureates People from New Haven, Connecticut Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences Van Nuys High School alumni Stanford University alumni Fellows of the Association for Computing Machinery Internet pioneers American engineers Living people Technology evangelists National Medal of Technology recipients Internet Hall of Fame inductees Fellow Members of the IEEE University of California, Los Angeles alumni National Inventors Hall of Fame inductees Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients Internet Society Japan Prize laureates Members of the United States National Academy of Engineering American computer scientists People from Connecticut 1943 births
Index term

An index term, subject term, subject heading, or descriptor, in information retrieval, is a term that captures the essence of the topic of a document. Index terms make up a controlled vocabulary for use in bibliographic records. They are an integral part of bibliographic control, which is the function by which libraries collect, organize and disseminate documents. They are used as keywords to retrieve documents in an information system, for instance, a catalog or a search engine.

Information retrieval
Evolved HSPA

HSPA+, or Evolved High-Speed Packet Access, is a technical standard for wireless, broadband telecommunication. HSPA+ enhances the widely used WCDMA based 3G networks with higher speeds for the end user that are comparable to the newer LTE networks. HSPA+ was first defined in the technical standard 3GPP release 7 and expanded further in later releases.

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System 3rd Generation Partnership Project standards
International broadcasting

International broadcasting is broadcasting that is deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. It usually is broadcast by means of longwave, mediumwave, or shortwave radio, but in recent years has also used direct satellite broadcasting and the Internet as means of reaching audiences. Although radio and television programs do travel outside national borders, in many cases reception by foreigners is accidental.

Propaganda techniques International broadcasting
Peering

In computer networking, peering is a voluntary interconnection of administratively separate Internet networks for the purpose of exchanging traffic between the customers of each network. The pure definition of peering is settlement-free or "sender keeps all," meaning that neither party pays the other for the exchanged traffic; instead, each derives revenue from its own customers.

Internet architecture
Media circus

Media circus is a colloquial metaphor, or idiom, describing a news event where the media coverage is perceived to be out of proportion to the event being covered, such as the number of reporters at the scene, the amount of news media published or broadcast, and the level of media hype. The term is meant to critique the media, usually negatively, by comparing it to a circus, and is considered an idiom as opposed to a literal observation. Usage of the term in this sense became common in the 1970s.

Public opinion Criticism of journalism
Web directory

A web directory or link directory is a directory on the World Wide Web. It specializes in linking to other web sites and categorizing those links. A web directory is not a search engine and does not display lists of web pages based on keywords; instead, it lists web sites by category and subcategory. Most web directory entries are also not found by web crawlers but by humans.

Search engine optimization Web directories
Internet Standard

In computer network engineering, an Internet Standard (STD) is a normative specification of a technology or methodology applicable to the Internet. Internet Standards are created and published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

Internet standards
Pandora Radio

Pandora Media, Inc. is the operator of Pandora Internet Radio (also referred as Pandora Radio or simply Pandora), an automated music recommendation service and "custodian" of the Music Genome Project available only in the United States. The service plays musical selections similar to song suggestions entered by a user. The user provides positive or negative feedback for songs chosen by the service, which are taken into account for future selections.

Android software Internet radio in the United States BlackBerry software Online music and lyrics databases Web 2.0 IOS software
Link rot

Link rot (or linkrot), also known as link death or link breaking, is an informal term for the process by which increasing numbers of links (either on individual websites or the Internet in general) point to web pages, servers or other resources that have become permanently unavailable. The phrase also describes the effects of failing to update out-of-date web pages that clutter search engine results. A link that does not work any more is called a broken link, dead link or dangling link.

Data quality Uniform resource locator
Host (network)

A network host is a computer connected to a computer network. A network host may offer information resources, services, and applications to users or other nodes on the network. A network host is a network node that is assigned a network layer host address. Computers participating in networks that use the Internet Protocol Suite may also be called IP hosts. Specifically, computers participating in the Internet are called Internet hosts, sometimes Internet nodes.

Networking hardware
Netizen

The term Netizen is a portmanteau of the English words internet and citizen. It is defined as an entity or person actively involved in online communities and a user of the internet, especially an avid one. The term can also imply an interest in improving the internet, especially in regard to open access and free speech. Netizens are also commonly referred to as cybercitizens, which has the same meaning.

Information society Internet personalities Internet terminology
IP Multimedia Subsystem

3rd Generation Partnership Project standards 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 standards Multimedia Telecommunications infrastructure Mobile telecommunications standards Telephony Videotelephony Network architecture Mobile technology VoIP terminology & concepts
Internet Explorer 6

Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 (abbreviated as IE6) is the sixth major revision of Internet Explorer, a web browser developed by Microsoft for Windows operating systems. It was released on August 27, 2001, shortly after the completion of Windows XP. It is the default browser shipped with Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, and was also made available for Windows NT 4.0, Windows 98, Windows 98 SE, Windows Me, Windows 2000, and Windows Home Server (a derivative of Windows Server 2003).

Windows web browsers FTP clients Internet Explorer Windows components 2001 software Windows XP
Autonomous System (Internet)

Within the Internet, an Autonomous System (AS) is a collection of connected Internet Protocol (IP) routing prefixes under the control of one or more network operators that presents a common, clearly defined routing policy to the Internet.

Internet architecture
Internet Explorer 8

Windows Internet Explorer 8 (abbreviated as IE8) is a web browser developed by Microsoft in the Internet Explorer browser series. The browser was released on March 19, 2009, for Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, and Windows 7. Both 32-bit and 64-bit builds are available. It is the successor to Internet Explorer 7, released in 2006, and is the default browser for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 operating systems.

News aggregators Windows 7 Windows web browsers Windows Server 2008 R2 FTP clients Internet Explorer Windows components 2009 software
Internet petition

An Internet petition is a form of petition posted on a website. Visitors to the website in question can add their email addresses or names, and after enough "signatures" have been collected, the resulting letter may be delivered to the subject of the petition, usually via e-mail.

Politics and technology Petitions World Wide Web
STV Group (Scotland)

STV Group plc is a Scottish media company. It is a constituent of the FTSE Fledgling Index. Originally formed as Scottish Television, it changed its name to Scottish Media Group in 1996 when it acquired Caledonian Publishing, owners of Glasgow-based newspapers The Herald and Evening Times (both of which have since been sold). It then went on to acquire the ITV licence holder for Northern Scotland, Grampian Television in 1997.

Television in Scotland 1957 establishments in Scotland Scottish media Media in Glasgow Media companies of Scotland Companies based in Glasgow Virgin Radio (UK) STV Group plc
List of YouTube personalities

YouTube personalities are those persons or groups who have grown to prominence because of their appearance in videos on YouTube. In addition to fans, some YouTube personalities have corporate sponsors, who pay for product placement in their clips or production of online ads. Some have quit their day jobs or changed careers to accommodate their YouTube filming schedules.

Internet memes Internet personalities Dynamic lists YouTube
Web television

Web television, commonly referred to as Web TV, is a rapidly growing genre of digital entertainment, using various forms of new media to deliver original shows or series to an audience. It is not to be confused with MSN TV (formerly "WebTV"), Internet television or catch up TV. Delivered originally online via broadband and mobile networks, web television shows, or web series, are typically short-form (2–9 minutes per episode), episodic, and produced in seasons. Notable series include: Dr.

Internet television Web television Digital media New media
Coupon

In marketing, a coupon is a ticket or document that can be exchanged for a financial discount or rebate when purchasing a product. Customarily, coupons are issued by manufacturers of consumer packaged goods or by retailers, to be used in retail stores as a part of sales promotions. They are often widely distributed through mail, coupon envelopes, magazines, newspapers, the Internet, directly from the retailer, and mobile devices such as cell phones.

Sales promotion Promotion and marketing communications Marketing
Mobile ad hoc network

A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring infrastructureless network of mobile devices connected by wireless. ad hoc is Latin and means "for this purpose". Each device in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently. Each must forward traffic unrelated to its own use, and therefore be a router.

Radio resource management Wireless networking
Satellite Internet access

Satellite Internet access is Internet access provided through satellites. The service can be provided to users world-wide through low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites. Geostationary satellites can offer higher data speeds, but their signals can not reach some polar regions of the world. Different types of satellite systems have a wide range of different features and technical limitations, which can greatly affect their usefulness and performance in specific applications.

Satellite Internet Broadband Internet access
Web standards

Web standards are the formal, non-proprietary standards and other technical specifications that define and describe aspects of the World Wide Web. In recent years, the term has been more frequently associated with the trend of endorsing a set of standardized best practices for building web sites, and a philosophy of web design and development that includes those methods.

Web standards
Internet forums

Internet backbone

The Internet backbone refers to the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected networks and core routers in the Internet. These data routes are hosted by commercial, government, academic and other high-capacity network centers, the Internet exchange points and network access points, that interchange Internet traffic between the countries, continents and across the oceans of the world.

Internet architecture
Cable Internet access

In telecommunications, cable Internet access, often shortened to cable Internet or simply cable, is a form of broadband Internet access that uses the cable television infrastructure. Like digital subscriber line and fiber to the premises services, cable Internet access provides network edge connectivity from the Internet service provider to an end user. It is integrated into the cable television infrastructure analogously to DSL which uses the existing telephone network.

Digital cable Internet access
PROTECT IP Act

The PROTECT IP Act (Preventing Real Online Threats to Economic Creativity and Theft of Intellectual Property Act, or PIPA) is a proposed law with the stated goal of giving the US government and copyright holders additional tools to curb access to "rogue websites dedicated to infringing on counterfeit goods", especially those registered outside the U.S. The bill was introduced on May 12, 2011, by Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) and 11 bipartisan co-sponsors.

2012 in the United States Computer law 2011 in the United States Internet in the United States Article Feedback 5 Additional Articles United States proposed federal legislation Copyright enforcement Articles created via the Article Wizard
Wireless broadband

Wireless broadband is technology that provides high-speed wireless Internet access or computer networking access over a wide area.

Internet access Wireless networking
Internetwork Packet Exchange

Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the OSI-model Network layer protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol stack. The IPX/SPXM protocol stack is supported by Novell's NetWare network operating system. Because of Netware's popularity through the late 1980s into the mid 1990s, IPX became a popular internetworking protocol. Novell derived IPX from Xerox Network Systems' IDP protocol.

Network layer protocols Novell NetWare
Point of presence

A point of presence (PoP) is an artificial demarcation point or interface point between communications entities. It may include a meet-me-room. In the US, this term became important during the court-ordered breakup of the Bell Telephone system. A point of presence was a location where a long-distance carrier could terminate services and provide connections into a local telephone network. An Internet point of presence is an access point to the Internet.

Telecommunications infrastructure
DoubleClick

DoubleClick is a subsidiary of Google that develops and provides Internet ad serving services. Its clients include agencies, marketers (Universal McCann Interactive, AKQA etc. ) and publishers who serve customers like Microsoft, General Motors, Coca-Cola, Motorola, L'Oréal, Palm, Inc. , Apple Inc. , Visa USA, Nike, Carlsberg among others. DoubleClick's headquarters is in New York City, United States. DoubleClick was founded in 1995 by Kevin O'Connor and Dwight Merriman.

Internet companies of the United States Google acquisitions Internet advertising services and affiliate networks Companies established in 1996 Bain Capital companies Companies based in New York City
Information and communication technologies for development

Information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) is a general term referring to the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) within the fields of socioeconomic development, international development and human rights. The basic hypothesis behind the approach is that more and better information and communication furthers the development of a society (be this to improve income, education, health, security, or any other aspect of human development).

Information technology Communication Development Information technology and development Information and communication technologies for development
E-democracy

E-democracy (a combination of the words electronic and democracy) refers to the use of information technologies and communication technologies and strategies in political and governance processes. "e-democracy is concerned with the use of information and communication technologies to engage citizens, support the democratic decision- making processes and strengthen representative democracy.

Direct democracy Information society Nonprofit technology Deliberative methods Election technology Technology in society Politics and technology
Online casino

Online casinos, also known as virtual casinos or Internet casinos, are online versions of traditional casinos. Online casinos enable gamblers to play and wager on casino games through the Internet. Online casinos generally offer odds and payback percentages that are comparable to land-based casinos. Some online casinos claim higher payback percentages for slot machine games, and some publish payout percentage audits on their websites.

Online gambling Casinos
Internet Explorer 5

Microsoft Internet Explorer 5 (abbreviated as IE5) was a graphical web browser released on March 18, 1999 by Microsoft, primarily for Microsoft Windows, but initially with versions available for Apple Macintosh, Sun Solaris, and HP-UX. It was one of the main participants of the first browser war. Its distribution methods and Windows integration were involved in United States v. Microsoft. It was superseded by Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 in August 2001, although IE5.

POSIX web browsers Discontinued Microsoft software Gopher clients Mac OS X web browsers Discontinued web browsers 1999 software Windows web browsers FTP clients Mac OS web browsers Internet suites Internet Explorer Windows components Windows Me 2000 software Mac OS X Discontinued Windows components Windows 98
Internet hosting service

An Internet hosting service is a service that runs Internet servers, allowing organizations and individuals to serve content to the Internet. There are various levels of service and various kinds of services offered. A common kind of hosting is web hosting. Most hosting providers offer a combined variety of services. Web hosting services also offer e-mail hosting service, for example. DNS hosting service is usually bundled with domain name registration.

Services management and marketing Internet hosting
BRAVIA

BRAVIA is an in house brand owned by Sony which produces high-definition LCD televisions, projection TVs and front projectors, home cinemas and the "BRAVIA Home Theatre" range for its parent company Sony KK. The name is an acronym of "Best Resolution Audio Visual Integrated Architecture". All Sony high-definition flat-panel LCD televisions in North America have carried the logo for BRAVIA since 2005.

High-definition television Sony products
Streaming audio

Internet activism

Internet activism (also known as digital campaigning, digital activism, online organizing, electronic advocacy, cyberactivism, e-campaigning and e-activism) is the use of electronic communication technologies such as social media, especially Twitter and Facebook, YouTube, e-mail, and podcasts for various forms of activism to enable faster communications by citizen movements and the delivery of local information to a large audience.

Information society Activism by method Technology in society Internet activism Politics and technology
StarHub

StarHub Limited is a full-fledged telecommunications company providing a full range of services over mobile, internet and fixed platforms in Singapore. It is the second largest mobile operator. Its top four direct shareholders are ST Telemedia, Qtel, NTT Communications Corp and Temasek Holdings.

Mobile phone companies of Singapore Members of the Conexus Mobile Alliance Telecommunications companies of Singapore Internet companies of Singapore Companies established in 1998
Mobile browser

A mobile browser, also called a microbrowser, minibrowser, or wireless internet browser (WIB), is a web browser designed for use on a mobile device such as a mobile phone or PDA. Mobile browsers are optimized so as to display Web content most effectively for small screens on portable devices. Mobile browser software must be small and efficient to accommodate the low memory capacity and low-bandwidth of wireless handheld devices.

Mobile web browsers Mobile software
Usage share of web browsers

]] The usage share of web browsers is the proportion, often expressed as a percentage, of users of all web browsers who use that particular browser. This figure can only be estimated, typically by determining the proportion of visitors to a group of websites that use a particular web browser. Web browser usage share varies from region to region as well as through time.

Web browsers Usage share
Internet in Russia

Currently Internet access in Russia is available to businesses and home users in various forms, including dial-up, cable, DSL, FTTH, mobile, wireless and satellite In September 2011, Russia overtook Germany as the European market with the highest number of unique visitors online. Russian Internet is also known as Runet.

Internet in Russia
Cybersex

Cybersex, also called computer sex, Internet sex, netsex, mudsex, TinySex and, colloquially, cybering, conversex, RP is a virtual sex encounter in which two or more persons connected remotely via computer network send each other sexually explicit messages describing a sexual experience. It is a form of sexual roleplay in which the participants pretend they are having actual sex.

Internet culture Cyberspace MUDs Sexuality and computers Sex industry Information Age
Viral phenomenon

Viral phenomena are objects or patterns able to replicate themselves or convert other objects into copies of themselves when these objects are exposed to them. The concept of something, other than a biological virus, being viral came into vogue just after the Internet became widely popular in the mid-to-late 1990s.

Neologisms Viral videos
Very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line

Very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line (VDSL or VHDSL) is a digital subscriber line (DSL) technology providing faster data transmission over a single flat untwisted or twisted pair of copper wires, and on coaxial cable (up to 85 Mbit/s down- and upstream); using the frequency band from 25 kHz to 12 MHz. These rates mean that VDSL is capable of supporting applications such as high-definition television, as well as telephone services and general Internet access, over a single connection.

Digital subscriber line
Donna Kossy

Donna J. Kossy (born 1957) is a U.S. writer, zine publisher, and online used book dealer based in Portland, Oregon. Specializing in the history of "forgotten, discredited and extreme ideas", which she calls "crackpotology and kookology", she is better known for her books Kooks: A Guide to the Outer Limits of Human Belief (1994, featuring the first biography of Francis E. Dec) and Strange Creations: Aberrant Ideas of Human Origins from Ancient Astronauts to Aquatic Apes (2001).

Writers from Portland, Oregon American women writers Intellectual historians Living people American writers on paranormal topics Folklore writers American magazine publishers (people) American booksellers American folklorists American biographers 1957 births American information and reference writers American bibliographers American skeptics
Sockpuppet (Internet)

A sockpuppet is an online identity used for purposes of deception. The term—a reference to the manipulation of a simple hand puppet made from a sock—originally referred to a false identity assumed by a member of an internet community who spoke to, or about himself while pretending to be another person. The term now includes other uses of misleading online identities, such as those created to praise, defend or support a third party or organization.

Deception Internet terminology Internet trolling
Regional Internet registry

A regional Internet registry (RIR) is an organization that manages the allocation and registration of Internet number resources within a particular region of the world. Internet number resources include IP addresses and autonomous system (AS) numbers.

Internet governance Internet standards Regional Internet Registries Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
Remote backup service

A remote, online, or managed backup service, sometimes marketed as cloud backup, is a service that provides users with a system for the backup and storage of computer files. Online backup providers are companies that provide this type of service to end users (or clients). Such backup services are considered a form of cloud computing.

File hosting Online backup services Computer backup Backup software Business continuity and disaster recovery
Internet security

Internet security is a branch of computer security specifically related to the Internet, often involving browser security but also network security on a more general level as it applies to other applications or operating systems on a whole. Its objective is to establish rules and measures to use against attacks over the Internet. The Internet represents an insecure channel for exchanging information leading to a high risk of intrusion or fraud, such as phishing.

Web security exploits Computer network security
Cincinnati Bell

Cincinnati Bell is the dominant telephone company for Cincinnati, Ohio, and its nearby suburbs in the U.S. states of Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky. The parent company is named Cincinnati Bell Inc. Its incumbent local exchange carrier subsidiary uses the name Cincinnati Bell Telephone Company LLC, and Cincinnati Bell Wireless provides mobile phone services. Other subsidiaries handle services such as payphones and long distance calling.

Internet service providers of the United States Broadband Companies established in 1873 Bell System Communications in Kentucky Communications in Indiana Telecommunications companies of the United States Cincinnati Bell Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange Companies based in Cincinnati, Ohio Communications in Ohio
Internet privacy

Internet privacy involves the right or mandate of personal privacy concerning the storing, repurposing, providing to third-parties, and displaying of information pertaining to oneself via the Internet. Privacy can entail both Personally Identifying Information (PII) or non-PII information such as a site visitor's behavior on a website. PII refers to any information that can be used to identify an individual.

Internet ethics Internet privacy
Wireless internet

Web syndication

Web syndication is a form of syndication in which website material is made available to multiple other sites. Most commonly, web syndication refers to making web feeds available from a site in order to provide other people with a summary or update of the website's recently added content (for example, the latest news or forum posts). The term can also be used to describe other kinds of licensing website content so that other websites can use it.

Web development Web syndication
IP multicast

IP multicast is a method of sending Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams to a group of interested receivers in a single transmission. It is often employed for streaming media applications on the Internet and private networks. The method is the IP-specific version of the general concept of multicast networking. It uses specially reserved multicast address blocks in IPv4 and IPv6. In IPv6, IP multicast addressing replaces broadcast addressing as implemented in IPv4.

Internet protocols
Scientology and the Internet

"Scientology and the Internet" refers to a number of disputes relating to the Church of Scientology's efforts to suppress material critical of Scientology on the Internet through the use of lawsuits and legal threats. In late 1994, the Church of Scientology began using various legal tactics to stop distribution of unpublished documents written by L. Ron Hubbard. The Church of Scientology is often accused of barratry through the filing of SLAPP suits.

Scientology versus the Internet Scientology and the legal system Computer law Digital Millennium Copyright Act takedown incidents
Backhaul (telecommunications)

In a hierarchical telecommunications network the backhaul portion of the network comprises the intermediate links between the core network, or backbone network and the small subnetworks at the "edge" of the entire hierarchical network. In contracts pertaining to such networks, backhaul is the obligation to carry packets to and from that global network.

Network architecture Telecommunications infrastructure Wireless networking
Cyberstalking

Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, a group of individuals, or an organization. It may include false accusations, monitoring, making threats, identity theft, damage to data or equipment, the solicitation of minors for sex, or gathering information in order to harass.

Abuse Computer crimes Sociological terms Aggression Cyberattacks
Internet Explorer 4

Microsoft Internet Explorer 4 (abbreviated as IE4) is a graphical web browser released in October 1997 by Microsoft, primarily for Microsoft Windows, but also with versions available for Apple Mac OS, Solaris, and HP-UX and marketed as "The Web the Way You Want It". It was one of the main participants of the first browser war. Its distribution methods and Windows integration were involved in United States v. Microsoft. It was superseded by Microsoft Internet Explorer 5 in March 1999.

POSIX web browsers Discontinued Microsoft software 1998 software Gopher clients 1997 software Discontinued web browsers Windows web browsers Windows 95 FTP clients Mac OS web browsers Internet suites Internet Explorer Windows components Discontinued Windows components Windows 98
Net neutrality

BIND

BIND, or named, is the most widely used DNS software on the Internet. On Unix-like operating systems it is the de facto standard. Originally written by four graduate students at the Computer Systems Research Group at the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), the name originates as an acronym from Berkeley Internet Name Domain, reflecting the application's use within UCB. BIND was first released with Berkeley Software Distribution 4.3BSD, and as such, it is free and open source software.

Free network-related software DNS software
Internet Explorer 9

Windows Internet Explorer 9 (abbreviated as IE9) is the current version of the Internet Explorer web browser from Microsoft. It was released to the public on March 14, 2011 at 21:00 PDT. Internet Explorer 9 supports several CSS 3 properties, embedded ICC v2 or v4 color profiles support via Windows Color System, and has improved JavaScript performance. It is the last of the five major web browsers to implement support for Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG).

Windows web browsers Internet Explorer
MSN Games

MSN Games (also known as Zone. com - formerly known as The Village, Internet Gaming Zone, MSN Gaming Zone, and MSN Games by Zone. com) is an online games site devoted primarily to casual games, both stand-alone and multi-player online games. Games are available in free on-line versions, trial versions, and full feature pay-to-play versions. Stand alone games can be played on the Web, or downloaded to a personal computer or smartphone.

Online gaming services Microsoft websites Browser-based game websites MSN
List of HTTP status codes

The following is a list of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) response status codes. This includes codes from IETF internet standards as well as unstandardized RFCs, other specifications and some additional commonly used codes. The first digit of the status code specifies one of five classes of response; the bare minimum for an HTTP client is that it recognises these five classes.

Internet-related lists HTTP status codes
Dance Dance Revolution (1998 video game)

Dance Dance Revolution, abbreviated DDR, is a game that was released in arcades by Konami on November 21, 1998 in Japan. DDR is a unique music video game involving dance and rhythm that defined the genre. The game involves timing and balance by having players use their feet instead of their hands like typical video games. In March 1999, the game was released to the Asian and North American arcade audiences. It was also released to the European arcade audience under the name Dancing Stage.

Dance Dance Revolution games 1998 video games PlayStation-only games Arcade games Video games developed in Japan
Internetworking

Internetworking (a combination of the words inter and networking; it is not internet-working or international-network) is the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks. The resulting system of interconnected networks is called an internetwork, or simply an internet.

Network architecture
Cyberterrorism

Cyberterrorism is the use of Internet based attacks in terrorist activities, including acts of deliberate, large-scale disruption of computer networks, especially of personal computers attached to the Internet, by the means of tools such as computer viruses. Cyberterrorism is a controversial term.

Cyberwarfare Computer crimes Terrorism by method
Netiquette

Netiquette is a set of social conventions that facilitate interaction over networks, ranging from Usenet and mailing lists to blogs and forums. These rules were described in IETF RFC 1855. However, like many Internet phenomena, the concept and its application remain in a state of flux, and vary from community to community.

Etiquette Internet culture
Video game addiction

Video Game Addiction, also known as Video Game Overuse, is extreme use of computer and video games that interferes with daily life. Instances have been reported in which users play compulsively, isolating themselves from family and friends or from other forms of social contact, and focus almost entirely on in-game achievements rather than other life events, and exhibit lack of imagination and mood swings.

Behavioral addiction
Datacasting

Datacasting (data broadcasting) is the broadcasting of data over a wide area via radio waves. It most often refers to supplemental information sent by television stations along with digital television, but may also be applied to digital signals on analog TV or radio.

Broadcast engineering Broadcasting Radio technology Interactive television
Web mapping

Web mapping is the process of designing, implementing, generating and delivering maps on the World Wide Web and its product. While web mapping primarily deals with technological issues, web cartography additionally studies theoretic aspects: the use of web maps, the evaluation and optimization of techniques and workflows, the usability of web maps, social aspects, and more.

Collaborative mapping Web mapping

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